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Yet, this model was initially known as the “Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing Model.” Experts often refer to this original model as the 4 stages of group development. Now, these 5 stages are vital to help you anticipate your team effectiveness. Simply put, that’s your ability to be efficient and productive with your work, both as individuals and as a group. It can be tempting to avoid conflict, but doing so doesn’t help team building. A team that works together to resolve issues will trust each other more. They can rely on each other to do the hard work they were hired to do, despite any differences that arise.

what are the four stages of group development

Team performance may actually decrease in this stage because energy is put into unproductive activities. Members may disagree on team goals, and subgroups and cliques may form around strong personalities or areas of agreement. To get through this stage, members must work to overcome obstacles, to accept individual differences, and to work through conflicting ideas on team tasks and goals. In the Performing stage of team development, members feel satisfaction in the team’s progress. They share insights into personal and group process and are aware of their own (and each other’s) strengths and weaknesses.

What is the Norming Stage?

Members may express concerns about being unable to meet the team’s goals. During the Storming stage, members are trying to see how the team will respond to differences and how it will handle conflict. Alasdair A. K. White together with his colleague, John Fairhurst, examined Tuckman’s development sequence when developing the White-Fairhurst TPR model. They simplify the sequence and group the forming-storming-norming stages together as the «transforming» phase, which they equate with the initial performance level.

  • Setting a goal, even before you start working together, establishes some ground rules to focus on and ensures that everyone is on the same page and moving towards the same goal.
  • A team that works together to resolve issues will trust each other more.
  • At the beginning, anxiety is high, people are uncertain and they are overly polite and pleasant.
  • Tuckman’s model has shown great results across many different businesses and for many different leaders.
  • This way, each employee knows they can trust you, and each other going forward.
  • Click the name of each activity below to get step-by-step instructions and other helpful resources like templates and videos.

During the Storming stage, team members may argue or become critical of the team’s original mission or goals. As the team begins to move towards its goals, members discover that the team what are the four stages of group development can’t live up to all of their early excitement and expectations. Their focus may shift from the tasks at hand to feelings of frustration or anger with the team’s progress or process.

Leadership strategies to facilitate successful team development

In addition to handling conflicts, thanks to group development, you’ll need to determine workflows, follow them, and constantly tweak and improve them as you go. In this stage, the team feels a dip in productivity — because there isn’t much left to do. Now, if the team members have grown close and accustomed to working with each other, they may mourn that it’s now time to move on and work with other people. The rest of the team gets feedback from SEO Wizard Daisy about the high performance of most articles, helping the company rank for the most relevant keywords. Her ideas are sometimes different from Stella’s — to everyone’s delight, as this only helps when the writers reach a creative dead end. In this stage, you and your team get to enjoy synergy — a state where work flows smoothly.

Everybody on the team is all ears, and they exchange opinions — but do their best to avoid direct confrontation. Due to her rank as the editor, Stella takes the lead and suggests the outline for the content plan. Yet, writers Adam and Daniel think they should take a different angle. At this point, Adam and Daniel form a clique against Stella — although everyone’s excessive politeness makes it seem as though nothing’s wrong. The group — not yet a team — needs to work together to make their content rank high on the first page of Google.

Employee performance metrics: The savvy manager’s ultimate power tool

Others have also adapted this model with additional stages, though we don’t focus on them here. Draw a simple four-stage diagram and ask each person to place a dot or sticky note next to the stage they think the team is at. Focus on building a shared understanding across your team and with stakeholders.

This can be an effective environment for the presentation of diverse ideas and creativity. The forming stage is when members of the group initially come together. The individuals begin to get to known one another and establish the nature and terms of interaction. In the first stage, storming, it is good to have co-ordinators to bring the group together and create a sense of cohesiveness. If this team was comprised of too many plants in its storming stages, these people could be completing for their idea to be heard. A plants ideas and energy may decrease quickly if there are too many monitor evaluators as these people will motivate the plants by constantly pointing out the flaws in their ideas.

The Tuckman Model

There’s a new initiative to run at and you’re keen to get started. You’re not sure who is doing what, or how to break this epic project into smaller components. After all, their ability to overcome obstacles and achieve their goals is a reflection of a management job well done. They feel confident and comfortable when approaching you with concerns and questions. You book 1-on-1 meetings with team members to learn about each of their experiences. As you do this, you recognize clear and consistent points with each team member and the benefits of hosting a team retrospective.

what are the four stages of group development

These skills are usually developed in early childhood and refined through high school. In addition to high levels of productivity, there is general mindfulness about the tasks and processes. They question established procedures and look for ways to enhance efficiency and effectiveness.

Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development

As a leader, it’s important to remember that you do not need to solve every conflict as it arises. It’s important for the team as a whole that they learn to deal with some of their issues. Of course, no good leader will let the conflict go on too long, and this is the challenge that the team leader must face – to intervene or to abdicate.

what are the four stages of group development

We all perceive things in our own unique way based on past experience and what we know now. The key to moving through this stage is to make things as simple as possible. Hopefully, your team’s purpose or desired outcome is understood by this point. Now it’s time to make sure everyone understands the incremental milestones on the way to your goal, and what their role is in helping the team get there. Clarity as to what success looks like at each milestone will give your team a much-needed confidence boost.


This is the stage when things begin to settle down as your team finds their groove. As they grow more comfortable working together, team members are more comfortable asking for help completing a task or getting constructive feedback. Your team starts to increase their productivity at this stage as they become more familiar with their teammates and their working styles. StopBullying.govexternal icon provides information from various government agencies on how children, parents, educators, and others in the community can prevent or stop bullying. National Institute of Mental Healthexternal icon
The National Institute of Mental Health has information on mental disorders affecting children and adolescents, including anxiety and depression. CDC’s Parent Information (Teens 12— 19)
This site has information to help you learn how to guide your teen to be safe and become a healthy and productive adult.